There is a sizable literature on the role of the reversible xanthophyll cycle in photoprotection (for review, see Demmig-Adams and Adams, 1992; Horton et al., 1996;Gilmore, 1997; Niyogi, 1999). Periodic drought fluctuation is a common phenomenon in Northwest China. The role of the xanthophyll cycle in the photoprotection of PSII with respect to qE . 1). … Light intensity-dependent changes in loroxanthin levels have been observed previously for the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus (40). These conditions activate the conversion of V to Z; the latter is a more effective acceptor of excitation energy from 1Chl, thereby allowing dynamic increases in the extent of photoprotection in excessive light. Hence, lutein, loroxanthin, or both must contribute to the de-excitation of 1Chl. Role of xanthophyll cycle-mediated photoprotection in Arbutus unedo plants exposed to water stress during the Mediterranean summer R. BARALDI*,++, F. CANACCINI**, S. CORTES***, F. MAGNANI**, F. RAPPARINI*, A. ZAMBONI**, and S. RADDI+ Istituto di Biometeorologia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna, Italy* Dipartimento di Colture Arboree, Università degli Studi … the processes generally called the xanthophyll cycle. β-Carotene, V, and neoxanthin (plus very low levels of A and Z) are essentially the only carotenoids in the npq1 lor1 mutant. This shift, which we propose is a consequence of the de-excitation of 1Chl by lutein, involves the entire LHC population, probably because all of the LHC monomers contain at least one lutein (two luteins, lutein and V, or lutein and neoxanthin). … Introduction: Xanthophylls’ Role in Photoprotection Sunlight is essential to power the photochemical reactions of photosynthesis, but a surplus of excitation energy produces various radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can damage the photosynthetic apparatus, leading to a decline in photosynthetic activity, growth, and productivity (i.e., “photoinhibition”) [1,2]. Learn more about the change. We address the biochemistry of … 69-76. 99: 197-209. Among them, the xanthophyll cycle pigment interconversion . Although it was first described as lacking only loroxanthin, lor1 also is unable to make α-carotene and lutein and is therefore likely defective in ɛ-cyclase activity. Mechanistic aspects of xanthophyll cycle-dependent photoprotection in higher plant. This result is explained by our model, because Z and A would replace lutein, V, or neoxanthin in the LHC and lead to the more efficient de-excitation of 1Chl, thereby decreasing the fluorescence lifetime from 1.6 ns to 0.4 ns. Li Z, Juneau P, Lian Y, Zhang W, Wang S, Wang C, Shu L, Yan Q, He Z, Xu K. Plants (Basel). Cells were frozen immediately in liquid nitrogen, and pigments were extracted with 90% (vol/vol) acetone in H2O. 4). … In the present review, we summarize current knowledge about the violaxanthin cycle of vascular plants, green and brown algae, and the diadinoxanthin cycle of the algal classes Bacillariophyceae, Xanthophyceae, Haptophyceae, and Dinophyceae. Therefore, only a subset of the Z, A, and lutein pools are directly involved in the de-excitation mechanism. Based on the substoichiometric levels of β-carotene-derived xanthophylls per LHC monomer, it was suggested that these xanthophylls bind to sites on the LHC distinct from those to which lutein binds (19, 49). COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. (LHC); photoprotection 1. Efficiency of photoprotection in microphytobenthos: role of vertical migration and the xanthophyll cycle against photoinhibition João Serôdio 1,2, *, João Ezequiel 1, Alexandre Barnett 2, Jean-Luc Mouget 3, Vona Méléder 2,4, Martin Laviale 1,4, Johann Lavaud 2. Carotenoids are known to play a crucial role in these processes based on their property to deactivate triplet chlorophyll (³Chl*) and singlet oxygen (¹O₂*). 2020 Jun 8;9(6):722. doi: 10.3390/plants9060722. Carotenes (A), α-carotene-derived xanthophylls (B), and β-carotene-derived xanthophylls (C) were determined by HPLC analysis of cell extracts before (LL, dark-adapted) and after exposure to 1,160 μmol photons m−2⋅s−1 for 15 min [LL + high light (HL)] by using the same conditions as for measurements of fluorescence. Daily xanthophyll cycle photoprotection in developing leaves prior to photosynthesis. In almost all photosynthetic eukaryotes, the majority of xan- thophylls are bound with chlorophyll (Chl) molecules to proteins of integral membrane, light-harvesting complexes (LHCs)(2–5).TheLHCsabsorbandtransferexcitationenergy to the photosynthetic reaction centers to … The synthesis of anthocyanin, the xanthophyll cycle, the antioxidant system and the production of active oxygen species (AOS) were compared between red and non-red apple cultivars, in response to either long-term sunlight exposure (high light intensity) during fruit development, or to exposure of bagged fruits to lower light intensity late in fruit development. Developmental. Cells were grown at an incident photon flux density (PFD) of 70 μmol photons m−2⋅s−1 (low light, LL) and then dark-adapted overnight. It Is Hot in the Sun: Antarctic Mosses Have High Temperature Optima for Photosynthesis Despite Cold Climate. Online ISSN 1091-6490. First, violaxanthin, which contains two epoxide group converts into antheraxanthol, which includes one epoxide group. The proposed photoprotective function of Z entails a direct quenching of excitation energy in the pigment bed of photosynthesis (Demmig-Adams, 1990; Horton et al., 1996), thereby protecting the photosynthetic … Growth and photosynthesis characteristics of C. reinhardtii strains. Xanthophyll cycle Zeaxanthin Photoprotection of photosystem II (PSII) is essential to avoid the light-induced damage of the photosynthetic apparatus due to the formation of reactive oxygen species (=photo-oxidative stress) under excess light. The lack of an epoxide on at least one cyclohexenyl ring of Z, A, and lutein may facilitate a direct photochemical reaction with 1O2 (44), whereas having additional conjugated double bonds might make these xanthophylls more effective in preventing lipid peroxidation (21). Physiologia Plantarum 99, 197–209. The fractional intensity of this 0.4-ns component is correlated with the concentration of Z and A. Mechanism of xanthophyll-cycle-mediated photoprotection in Cerasus humilis seedlings under water stress and subsequent recovery X.S. We address the biochemistry of the xanthophyll cycle enzymes with … The sum of their contributions was ~20% in both months, suggesting that other processes also contribute to photoprotection. Physiol. Estimates of excited state energy levels suggest that the lowest singlet state (21Ag or S1) of Z and A can accept excitation energy directly from 1Chl (15–17); the excited xanthophylls return to ground state by nonradiative heat dissipation. Photons m−2⋅s−1 and dark-adapted overnight and functional roles in the lor1 mutant an! Carotenoids or scavenged by antioxidants such as α-tocopherol of binding of violaxanthin de-epoxidation, increases the susceptibility leaves! 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