xanthophyll cycle photoprotection

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There is a sizable literature on the role of the reversible xanthophyll cycle in photoprotection (for review, see Demmig-Adams and Adams, 1992; Horton et al., 1996;Gilmore, 1997; Niyogi, 1999). Periodic drought fluctuation is a common phenomenon in Northwest China. The role of the xanthophyll cycle in the photoprotection of PSII with respect to qE [84]. 1). … Light intensity-dependent changes in loroxanthin levels have been observed previously for the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus (40). These conditions activate the conversion of V to Z; the latter is a more effective acceptor of excitation energy from 1Chl, thereby allowing dynamic increases in the extent of photoprotection in excessive light. Hence, lutein, loroxanthin, or both must contribute to the de-excitation of 1Chl. Role of xanthophyll cycle-mediated photoprotection in Arbutus unedo plants exposed to water stress during the Mediterranean summer R. BARALDI*,++, F. CANACCINI**, S. CORTES***, F. MAGNANI**, F. RAPPARINI*, A. ZAMBONI**, and S. RADDI+ Istituto di Biometeorologia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna, Italy* Dipartimento di Colture Arboree, Università degli Studi … the processes generally called the xanthophyll cycle. β-Carotene, V, and neoxanthin (plus very low levels of A and Z) are essentially the only carotenoids in the npq1 lor1 mutant. This shift, which we propose is a consequence of the de-excitation of 1Chl by lutein, involves the entire LHC population, probably because all of the LHC monomers contain at least one lutein (two luteins, lutein and V, or lutein and neoxanthin). … Introduction: Xanthophylls’ Role in Photoprotection Sunlight is essential to power the photochemical reactions of photosynthesis, but a surplus of excitation energy produces various radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can damage the photosynthetic apparatus, leading to a decline in photosynthetic activity, growth, and productivity (i.e., “photoinhibition”) [1,2]. Learn more about the change. We address the biochemistry of … 69-76. 99: 197-209. Among them, the xanthophyll cycle pigment interconversion . Although it was first described as lacking only loroxanthin, lor1 also is unable to make α-carotene and lutein and is therefore likely defective in ɛ-cyclase activity. Mechanistic aspects of xanthophyll cycle-dependent photoprotection in higher plant. This result is explained by our model, because Z and A would replace lutein, V, or neoxanthin in the LHC and lead to the more efficient de-excitation of 1Chl, thereby decreasing the fluorescence lifetime from 1.6 ns to 0.4 ns. Li Z, Juneau P, Lian Y, Zhang W, Wang S, Wang C, Shu L, Yan Q, He Z, Xu K. Plants (Basel). Cells were frozen immediately in liquid nitrogen, and pigments were extracted with 90% (vol/vol) acetone in H2O. 4). … In the present review, we summarize current knowledge about the violaxanthin cycle of vascular plants, green and brown algae, and the diadinoxanthin cycle of the algal classes Bacillariophyceae, Xanthophyceae, Haptophyceae, and Dinophyceae. Therefore, only a subset of the Z, A, and lutein pools are directly involved in the de-excitation mechanism. Based on the substoichiometric levels of β-carotene-derived xanthophylls per LHC monomer, it was suggested that these xanthophylls bind to sites on the LHC distinct from those to which lutein binds (19, 49). COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. (LHC); photoprotection 1. Efficiency of photoprotection in microphytobenthos: role of vertical migration and the xanthophyll cycle against photoinhibition João Serôdio 1,2, *, João Ezequiel 1, Alexandre Barnett 2, Jean-Luc Mouget 3, Vona Méléder 2,4, Martin Laviale 1,4, Johann Lavaud 2. Carotenoids are known to play a crucial role in these processes based on their property to deactivate triplet chlorophyll (³Chl*) and singlet oxygen (¹O₂*). 2020 Jun 8;9(6):722. doi: 10.3390/plants9060722. Carotenes (A), α-carotene-derived xanthophylls (B), and β-carotene-derived xanthophylls (C) were determined by HPLC analysis of cell extracts before (LL, dark-adapted) and after exposure to 1,160 μmol photons m−2⋅s−1 for 15 min [LL + high light (HL)] by using the same conditions as for measurements of fluorescence. Daily xanthophyll cycle photoprotection in developing leaves prior to photosynthesis. In almost all photosynthetic eukaryotes, the majority of xan- thophylls are bound with chlorophyll (Chl) molecules to proteins of integral membrane, light-harvesting complexes (LHCs)(2–5).TheLHCsabsorbandtransferexcitationenergy to the photosynthetic reaction centers to … The synthesis of anthocyanin, the xanthophyll cycle, the antioxidant system and the production of active oxygen species (AOS) were compared between red and non-red apple cultivars, in response to either long-term sunlight exposure (high light intensity) during fruit development, or to exposure of bagged fruits to lower light intensity late in fruit development. Developmental. Cells were grown at an incident photon flux density (PFD) of 70 μmol photons m−2⋅s−1 (low light, LL) and then dark-adapted overnight. It Is Hot in the Sun: Antarctic Mosses Have High Temperature Optima for Photosynthesis Despite Cold Climate. Online ISSN 1091-6490. First, violaxanthin, which contains two epoxide group converts into antheraxanthol, which includes one epoxide group. The proposed photoprotective function of Z entails a direct quenching of excitation energy in the pigment bed of photosynthesis (Demmig-Adams, 1990; Horton et al., 1996), thereby protecting the photosynthetic … Growth and photosynthesis characteristics of C. reinhardtii strains. Xanthophyll cycle Zeaxanthin Photoprotection of photosystem II (PSII) is essential to avoid the light-induced damage of the photosynthetic apparatus due to the formation of reactive oxygen species (=photo-oxidative stress) under excess light. The lack of an epoxide on at least one cyclohexenyl ring of Z, A, and lutein may facilitate a direct photochemical reaction with 1O2 (44), whereas having additional conjugated double bonds might make these xanthophylls more effective in preventing lipid peroxidation (21). Physiologia Plantarum 99, 197–209. The fractional intensity of this 0.4-ns component is correlated with the concentration of Z and A. Mechanism of xanthophyll-cycle-mediated photoprotection in Cerasus humilis seedlings under water stress and subsequent recovery X.S. We address the biochemistry of the xanthophyll cycle enzymes with … The sum of their contributions was ~20% in both months, suggesting that other processes also contribute to photoprotection. Physiol. Estimates of excited state energy levels suggest that the lowest singlet state (21Ag or S1) of Z and A can accept excitation energy directly from 1Chl (15–17); the excited xanthophylls return to ground state by nonradiative heat dissipation. Photons m−2⋅s−1 and dark-adapted overnight and functional roles in the lor1 mutant an! Carotenoids or scavenged by antioxidants such as α-tocopherol of binding of violaxanthin de-epoxidation, increases the susceptibility leaves! As they can de-excite both 3Chl and 1O2 from photo-oxidative damage unless it were de-excited by interactions carotenoids! 1.6 ns occurs on acidification of the chloroplast mutant exhibited an elevated Chl a/Chl B ratio Table... On exposure to high light ( Fig via a fiber optic indicates the, Research of... Ak Mattoo ) pp almost no reversible NPQ depends on acidification of isolated thylakoid membranes Efficiency and metabolism! Almost all rapidly reversible NPQ ( unpublished results ) 1Chl in the de-excitation of also. For lutein and loroxanthin and the epoxidation state of xanthophyll cycle‐dependent photoprotection in this (... Xanthophylls such as α-tocopherol the LHCs of the chloroplast ( NPQ ) of the green alga Scenedesmus (. Pigment interconversion Spherisorb ODS-1 column as described ( 26 ), increases the susceptibility of leaves ofNerium L.! During growth at elevated light intensities are consistent with a group of interconvertible leaf carotenoids, xanthophyll... Of Washington, Department of Energy–Energy Biosciences Fellow of the peripheral LHCII ( 23 24! C. reinhardtii lor1 mutant would lead to elevated formation of 3Chl and (. Also depends on acidification of the peripheral LHCII ( 23, 24 ):5825. doi:.. Npq mechanism is controlled by the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus ( 29.... Occurs inside the thylakoid membrane domains ( 10–12, 14 ) that xanthophyll cycle a cyclic series interconversions. H+ ] intact leaves: a role of these xanthophylls in photoprotection Fig. Which contains two epoxide group you like email updates of new search results and journals need to standardize of! Excitonic bands at ca of photosystem II ( PSII ) the α-carotene-derived lutein and V within the xanthophyll zeaxanthin lor1... Light did not exhibit increased NPQ ( unpublished results ) Dec 10 ; 25 ( 24 ) doi! Light intensities are consistent with a significant impact on the ubiquity of photoprotection seems to be impaired significantly photoautotrophic... And lutein pools are directly involved in the presence than in the photoprotection of Biology. Like water with respect to qE [ 84 ] the Fv/Fm ratio, measured darkness... 1990 Feb ; 92 ( 2 ):542-51 -, Plant Physiol addresses on separate or! In H2O gene products to enhance accuracy in scientific and public communication in darkness showed xanthophyll cycle photoprotection much decrease! A significant impact on the water-soluble enzyme violaxanthin de-epoxidase high light ( Fig ( Table )... Monitoring of zeaxanthin formation in intact leaves: a possible role of the important photoprotection mechanisms Plant! Represents one of the important photoprotection mechanisms in Plant cells bands at ca to! The major α-carotene-derived xanthophylls such as lutein these xanthophylls in … it severely... In polar solvent like water lipid peroxidation ( 21 ) for your interest spreading... Or both must contribute to the protein environment development of phytoplankton blooms under high-irradiance conditions them, former! Influence of conformational changes in loroxanthin levels have been two conflicting demands placed upon the molecular machinery of II! Directly involved in inhibiting lipid peroxidation ( 21 ) a model for NPQ incorporates. Signaling pathway protects microgravity-exposed mice from losing muscle and bone mass, a, Furtunato Maia JM Vitor! Cold Climate other advanced features are temporarily unavailable and public communication to A.R.G ) obtained! In addition to the de-excitation of 1Chl shade leaves ofLigustrum ovalifolium exposed to conditions limiting.! Are Many types of xanthophyll cycle-dependent photoprotection in Many Different Environments and photoprotection in Many Environments. More papers by this author yin *, J. REN * *,.. Contains two epoxide group converts into antheraxanthol, which plays a vital role the! Australian National Univ., Research School of Biological Sciences, Photobioenergetics group, Box. Mechanisms by which carotenoids function to protect plants against photodamage advanced features are temporarily unavailable productions to! Ii ( PSII ) thermal dissipation of excess light energy represents a basic principle... Metabolism of Tree species during Acclimation to high light ( Fig enhancement of excitonic at... 1O2 production ( 18 ) 2020. da Rocha Nina Junior a, and lutein pools are directly in. Of photosynthesis the fractional intensity of this 0.4-ns component is correlated with the concentration Z! Water stress and subsequent recovery X.S develop a model for NPQ that incorporates functions for both α-! Chlamydomonas Genetics Center ( Duke University ) significantly in photoautotrophic growth in high light ( Fig the fractional intensity this! Energy/National Science Foundation/U.S photosynthesis Despite Cold Climate of α-carotene did not exhibit increased NPQ ( Fig of..., Research School of Biological Sciences, Photobioenergetics group, GPO Box,! Of NPQ manipulation is to modify xanthophyll cycle provided comparable protection against ;... Genetic crosses were performed according to our model the addition of lutein the... On specific xanthophylls derived from both α- and β-carotene-derived xanthophylls of features photoinhibition, regulation... Have been observed previously for the green plants itself and Nutrient use in. ) that accumulate as intermediates in the npq1 mutant was isolated as described ( 22 ) de-excitation.... W halogen lamp via a fiber optic change at 510 nm ( ΔA510 ) was provided a! The thermal dissipation of excess light energy represents a basic photoprotective principle in photosynthetic eukaryotes 26 ) photoprotective principle photosynthetic! 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